Euclidean Distance (Spatial Analyst)


Calculates, for each cell, the Euclidean distance to the closest source.

Learn more about Euclidean distance analysis


Euclidean Distance illustration
Euc_Dist = EucDistance(Source_Ras)



EucDistance (in_source_data, {maximum_distance}, {cell_size}, {out_direction_raster})
ParameterExplanationData Type

The input source locations.

This is a raster or feature dataset that identifies the cells or locations to which the Euclidean distance for every output cell location is calculated.

For rasters, the input type can be integer or floating point.

Raster Layer | Feature Layer

Defines the threshold that the accumulative distance values cannot exceed.

If an accumulative Euclidean distance value exceeds this value, the output value for the cell location will be NoData.

The default distance is to the edge of the output raster.


The cell size at which the output raster will be created.

This will be the value in the environment if it is explicitly set. If it is not set in the environment, the default cell size will depend on if the input source data is a raster or a feature, as follows:

  • If the source is raster, the output will have that same cell size.
  • If the source is feature, the output will have a cell size determined by the shorter of the width or height of the extent of input feature, in the input spatial reference, divided by 250.

Analysis Cell Size

The output Euclidean direction raster.

The direction raster contains the calculated direction, in degrees, each cell center is from the closest source cell center.

The range of values is from 0 degrees to 360 degrees, with 0 reserved for the source cells. Due east (right) is 90, and the values increase clockwise (180 is south, 270 is west, and 360 is north).

The output raster is of integer type.

Raster Dataset

Return Value

NameExplanationData Type

The output Euclidean distance raster.

The distance raster identifies, for each cell, the Euclidean distance to the closest source cell, set of source cells, or source location.

The output raster is of floating point type.


Code Sample

EucDistance example 1 (Python window)

The following Python Window script demonstrates how to use the EuclideanDistance tool.

import arcpy
from arcpy import env
from import *
env.workspace = "C:/sapyexamples/data"
outEucDistance = EucDistance("rec_sites.shp", 5000, 5, 
EucDistance example 2 (stand-alone script)

Calculates for each cell the straight line distance to the nearest source.

# Name:
# Description: Calculates for each cell the Euclidean distance to the nearest source.
# Requirements: Spatial Analyst Extension
# Author: ESRI

# Import system modules
import arcpy
from arcpy import env
from import *

# Set environment settings
env.workspace = "C:/sapyexamples/data"

# Set local variables
inSourceData = "rec_sites.shp"
maxDistance = 4000
cellSize = 4
outDirectionRaster = "C:/sapyexamples/output/eucdirect"

# Check out the ArcGIS Spatial Analyst extension license

# Execute EucDistance
outEucDistance = EucDistance(inSourceData, maxDistance, cellSize, outDirectionRaster)

# Save the output"C:/sapyexamples/output/eucdist")


Related Topics

Licensing Information

ArcView: Requires Spatial Analyst
ArcEditor: Requires Spatial Analyst
ArcInfo: Requires Spatial Analyst